Some theorists and writers argued that human rightsliberal democracyand the capitalist free market economy had become the only remaining ideological alternative for nations in the post-Cold War world. Specifically, Francis Fukuyama argued that the world had reached the ' end of history ' in a Hegelian sense. Huntington believed that while the age of ideology had ended, the world had only reverted to a normal state of affairs characterized by cultural conflict. In his thesis, he argued that the primary axis of conflict in the future will be along cultural lines.
Kennedy School of Government or Harvard University. All works posted here are owned and copyrighted by the author s. Papers may be downloaded for personal use only. Evidence from the waves of the World Values Study allows us, for the first time, to examine an extensive body of empirical evidence relating to this debate.
But Huntington is mistaken in assuming that the core clash between the West and Islamic worlds concerns democracy. The evidence suggests striking similarities in the political values held in these societies.
It is true that Islamic publics differ from Western publics concerning the role of religious leadership in society, but this is not a simple dichotomous clash-- many non-Islamic societies side with the Islamic ones on this issue.
Moreover Clash of civilization thesis Huntington thesis fails to identify the most basic cultural fault line between the West and Islam, which concerns the issues of gender equality and sexual liberalization. The cultural gulf separating Islam from the West involves Eros far more than Demos.
This account emphasized that the end of the Cold War brought new dangers. Tribal wars and ethnic conflicts will occur within civilizations…And the most dangerous cultural conflicts are those along the fault lines between civilizations… For forty-five years the Iron Curtain was the central dividing line in Europe.
That line has moved several hundred miles east. It is now the line separating peoples of Western Christianity, on the one hand, from Muslim and Orthodox peoples on the other.
This influential account appeared to offer insights into the causes of violent ethno-religious conflicts exemplified by Bosnia, the Caucuses, the Middle East, and Kashmir.
It seemed to explain the failure of political reform to take root in many Islamic states, despite the worldwide resurgence of electoral democracies around the globe. The framework seemed to provide a powerful lens that the American media used to interpret the underlying reasons for the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center.
Nevertheless, the Huntington thesis has been highly controversial. Many scholars have challenging the existence of a single Islamic culture stretching all the way from Jakarta to Lagos, let alone one that held values deeply incompatible with democracy Kabuli ; Esposito and Voll ; Shadid What has been less widely examined, however, is systematic empirical evidence of whether the publics in Western and Islamic societies share similar or deeply divergent values, and, in particular, whether any important differences between these cultures rest on democratic values as Huntington claims or on social values as modernization theories suggest.
This study seeks to throw new light on this issue by examining cultural values in seventy-five nations around the globe, including nine predominately Islamic societies, utilizing the World Values Study Part I briefly outlines the Huntington thesis and the response by critics.
Part III analyzes the evidence. The conclusion summarizes the results and reflects on their implications. We do find significant cross-cultural differences concerning the role of religious leaders in politics and society, but these attitudes divide the West from many other countries around the globe, not just Islamic ones.
The original thesis erroneously assumed that the primary cultural fault line between the West and Islam concerns government, overlooking a stronger cultural divide based on issues of gender equality and sexual liberalization.
Cohort analysis suggests that as younger generations in the West have gradually become more liberal on these issues, this has generated a growing cultural gap, with Islamic nations remaining the most traditional societies in the world.
The central values separating Islam and the West revolve far more centrally around Eros than Demos. Of these factors, Huntington sees religion as the central defining element p.
For Huntington, the defining features of Western civilization include the separation of religious and secular authority, the rule of law and social pluralism, the parliamentary institutions of representative government, and the protection of individual rights and civil liberties as the buffer between citizens and the power of the state: The combination of them was, however, and this is what gave the West its distinctive quality.
This claim is given plausibility by the failure of electoral democracy to take root in most states in the Middle East and North Africa see Midlarsky According to the annual assessment made by the Freedom Houseof the countries around the world, two-thirds are electoral democracies. Of the 47 countries with an Islamic majority, one quarter 11 are electoral democracies.
Furthermore, none of the core Arabic-speaking societies in the Middle East and North Africa falls into this category. Given this pattern, in the absence of survey evidence concerning the actual beliefs of Islamic publics, it is commonly assumed that they have little faith in the principles or performance of democracy, preferring strong leadership and rule by traditional religious authorities to the democratic values of pluralistic competition, political participation, and political rights and civil liberties.
It remains unclear whether Huntington is claiming that the core cleavage concerns Western democratic values versus the developing world, or whether the main contrast lies as a fault line between the West and Islam, but the latter has been the primary popular interpretation of the thesis, and the one which has aroused the most heated debate.
Critics have challenged the notion of a single Islamic culture, pointing to substantial contrasts found among one billion people living in diverse Islamic nations, such as Pakistan, Jordan, Azerbaijan, Indonesia, Bangladesh, and Turkey, and the differences between Muslims who are radical or moderate, traditional or modern, conservative or liberal, hard-line or revisionist Hunter ; Esposito ; Fuller · The Clash of Civilization was a book written by American political scientist Samuel Huntington.
In brief, the book states that religious and cultural differences will be the key starting point of conflicts among different groups in the world after the Cold rutadeltambor.com://rutadeltambor.com Clash of Civilizations; by James Graham. Published: May, In the post Cold War world few articles have influenced how Western and especially American policymakers view the world more than Samuel P.
Huntington's article, The Clash of Civilizations. · the Clash of Civilizations, and the Age of Empire by Chan-young Yang Class of Western civilization, whereas a new era of intercivilizational conflicts has begun. In their trilogy Empire This thesis is devoted to reassessing Fukuyama’s paradigm of History, first by rutadeltambor.com?article=&.
· Towards ‘the dignity of difference?’ central to fukuyama’s thesis is the idea that western liberal democracy had proved itself to be the best and, indeed, the only viable option for the governance of neither ‘end of History’ nor ‘Clash of Civilizations’ rutadeltambor.com · As the war in Afghanistan nears the end of its shooting phase, questions are being raised afresh on the validity of the thesis of Harvard professor, Samuel Huntington, on the inevitability of a clash between the Muslim civilization of the East and the Christian civilization of the rutadeltambor.com://rutadeltambor.com · The danger of the Clash of Civilization thesis is presented by the term "clash of civilizations" which is intuitively understandable.
This has ensured the theory has been used to increase the fear in the West of an Islamic movement perceived as increasingly powerful and rutadeltambor.com://rutadeltambor.com