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Article 11 of the proposal for a Directive on Copyright in the Digital Single Market, as it currently stands following negotiations in the EU Council and Parliament, is a bad piece of legislation.
The proposal would likely impede the free flow of information that is of vital importance to democracy. This is because it would create very broad rights of ownership in news and other information.
The rights would be owned by established institutional producers of news.
And in each Member State, the new right would sit on top of all the other property rights that such publishers of news already enjoy: This proliferation of different rights for established players would make it more expensive for other people to use news content.
Transaction costs would be greatly increased, as permissions would need to be sought for virtually any use. Even using the smallest part of a press publication except perhaps for strictly private use would mean payment would be due to an institutional news publisher.
That means, the proposal would be likely to harm journalists, photographers, citizen journalists and many other non-institutional creators and producers of news, especially the growing number of freelancers. The people most likely to benefit would be the big established news institutions.
If they should benefit, this is likely to exacerbate existing power asymmetries in media markets that already suffer from worrying levels of concentration in many Member States.
That said, it is not clear that even these big news institutions would benefit. Similar rights introduced in Germany and Spain were not effective. There is no sound economic case for the introduction of such a right.
An additional intellectual property right would not change the fundamental problems that news institutions face. They would still have to compete with many other actors for consumer attention, advertisers and hence revenue. We agree with the supporters of this right about one thing: As public watchdog and forum for public debate, the traditional print press plays a vital role in democratic societies, but so do newer online media.
All actors in the media ecosystem enjoy freedom of expression, as guaranteed under the European Convention on Human Rights and the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU. This proposal will do nothing to help journalism, but seriously risks doing disproportionate harm to media creators, to smaller publishers, to SMEs seeking to innovate with online media services, to citizens and to society at large.
Inventing new rights is not the solution. In order to appreciate why the balance is so clearly against this proposal, it is important to understand that press publishers already have very significant rights in their publications.
They own enforceable rights in much of the material in a publication by virtue of assigned copyright or exclusive licencesthrough national rules on employer ownership or collective works, and through the EU wide sui generis right in databases a term broad enough to cover all newspapers.
This is already a formidable arsenal. Even without the introduction of the proposed right, it is unlawful and when done knowingly and with a view to profit, often criminal for third parties without licence or a defence to reproduce or make available copyright-protected material.
The reproduction or making available of small parts of such material may also be unlawful, where those parts are themselves creative. As a result of German rules and procedure, it is administratively cumbersome and time-consuming for press publishers to rely on such rights.
Documentation is required from authors in respect of the rights in each and every item in a publication. However, a German procedural problem deserves a German solution, not one at a European Union level. That is exactly what has occurred with the one year Leistungsschutzrecht introduced in Germany.
There is no need for the other 27 Member States to swallow the German medicine, the efficacy of which is so far wholly unproven. The proposed right would not improve the economic position of press publishers elsewhere. If it has any effect, the recognition of a press publishers right would strengthen their bargaining position with respect to authors and creators, a relationship which is hardly one of economic equivalence as it stands.
However, such a right may well exacerbate existing media concentration problems, not least because media outlets would themselves have to seek permission from one another for the use of publications and parts of publicationsthus placing SMEs at a bargaining disadvantage.
If certain users of platforms such as Twitter are prohibited from circulating the links posted by subscribers to online, publicly accessible, quality news, the chances are that such users will circulate information derived from other sources. In contrast, one thing is clear: Adding yet another layer of protection will create uncertainty, both as to coverage and as to scope.
The proposed right is not subject to a requirement of investment by contrast with the existing protection or databases or an originality threshold as applies to copyright.The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.
INTRODUCTION. This page explains how to write a British-style CV (curriculum vitae, or resume, or personal history) and covering letter, used when applying for jobs in the UK. This is a format for the Schengen visa sample cover letter. Sample cover letter for Schengen tourist visa application from the Philippines.
I regularly get asked for examples of good cover letters, and I’m always nervous about sharing them because PEOPLE STEAL THEM. But a reader sent me a great one and gave me permission to share it, and I thought it was a good example of how to write a letter that talks about what differentiates you.
But those who can write a relevant cover letter and CV stand out like diamonds and are a joy to shortlist." Emails are not as easy to read as letters. Stick to simple text with short paragraphs and plenty of spacing.
The Module Directory provides information on all taught modules offered by Queen Mary during the academic year The modules are listed alphabetically, and you can search and sort the list by title, key words, academic school, module code and/or semester.