Unfortunately, many patients do not know about their disease for long time or just ignore the problem. Such attitude to the health is wrong, because hypertension can lead to development of acute cardiovascular diseases which form the high mortality statistics. This essay focuses on factors that cause hypertension and the impact of the disease on human body.
Antihypertensive therapy has been demonstrated to significantly reduce the risk of death from stroke and coronary artery disease. Other studies have demonstrated that a reduction in blood pressure BP may result in improved renal function.
After kidney transplantation, it is reasonable to treat patients with hypertension with a calcium antagonist on the basis of improved glomerular filtration rate GFR and kidney survival.
Immediate lowering of SBP to lower than mm Hg in adults with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage ICH who present within 6 hours of the acute event and have an SBP between mm Hg and mm Hg is not of benefit to reduce death or severe disability and can be potentially harmful.
In adults with hypertension, screening for primary aldosteronism is recommended in the presence of any of the following concurrent conditions: Adult men and women with elevated BP or hypertension who currently consume alcohol should be advised to drink no more than two and one standard drinks per day, respectively.
Clinicians should initiate treatment in patients aged 60 years or older who have persistent SBP at or above mm Hg to achieve a target of less than mm Hg to reduce the risk for stroke, cardiac events, and death.
If patients 60 years or older have a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack or have high cardiovascular risk, physicians should consider starting or increasing drug therapy to achieve an SBP of less than mm Hg to reduce the risk for stroke and cardiac events.
Factors include comorbidity, medication burden, risk of adverse events, and cost. Lifestyle modifications Lifestyle modifications are essential for the prevention of high BP, and these are generally the initial steps in managing hypertension.
As the cardiovascular disease risk factors are assessed in individuals with hypertension, pay attention to the lifestyles that favorably affect BP level and reduce overall cardiovascular disease risk.
A relatively small reduction in BP may affect the incidence of cardiovascular disease on a population basis. In a study that attempted to formulate a predictive model for the risk of prehypertension and hypertension, as well as an estimate of expected benefits from population-based lifestyle modification, investigators reported that the majority of risk factors have a larger role in prehypertension and stage 1 hypertension than in stage 2 hypertension.
The investigators derived multistep composite risk scores by assessing significant risk factors in the progression from prehypertension to hypertension, as well as the regression of prehypertension to normal; they indicated that as the number of risk factors included in intervention programs increases, the size of the expected mean risk score decreases.
In men, the 5-year predicted cumulative risk for stage 2 hypertension decreased from Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for pheochromocytoma and for patients with a unilateral solitary aldosterone-producing adenoma, because hypertension is cured by tumor resection.
Of note, patients with benign adenomas may be able to be treated with spironolactone instead of surgery.
Another intervention that initially seemed to hold great promise for the treatment of resistant hypertension is renal artery denervation. However, more recent controlled studies have suggested little benefit on BP from percutaneous renal denervation therapy, and ongoing studies are testing this intervention using newer techniques.
Consultation with a hypertension specialist is indicated for management of secondary hypertension attributable to a specific cause.
Nonpharmacologic Therapy Dietary changes A number of studies have documented an association between sodium chloride intake and BP.
The effect of sodium chloride is particularly important in individuals who are middle-aged to elderly with a family history of hypertension. A moderate reduction in sodium chloride intake can lead to a small reduction in blood pressure. The American Heart Association recommends that the average daily consumption of sodium chloride not exceed 6 g; this may lower BP by mm Hg.
Furthermore, a low-sodium diet added to dual therapy yielded additional reductions in both BP and proteinuria, emphasizing the beneficial effect of dietary salt reduction in the management of hypertensive patients with renal insufficiency.
The DASH eating plan encompasses a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products and may lower blood pressure by mm Hg. The ADA standard of care supports the DASH diet, with the caution that high-quality studies of diet and exercise to lower blood pressure have not been performed on individuals with diabetes.
Lower intake of these elements potentiates the effect of sodium on BP. Oral potassium supplementation may lower both systolic and diastolic BP. In population studies, low levels of alcohol consumption have shown a favorable effect on BP, with reductions of mm Hg. However, the consumption of 3 or more drinks per day is associated with elevation of BP.
Daily alcohol intake should be restricted to less than 1 oz of ethanol in men and 0. The ADA standard supports limiting alcohol consumption in patients with diabetes and hypertension.Background 1.
At initial presentation, patients demonstrating features of a hypertensive urgency or emergency (Supplemental Table S3) should be diagnosed as hypertensive and require immediate management (Grade D).In all other patients, at least two more readings should be . Hypertension Hypertension research papers examine the disease that is a world-wide epidemic.
Hypertension research papers show that hypertension is a chronic medical condition that leads to increased susceptibility to life-threatening diseases.
Coronary heart disease and stroke, the number one and number two leading causes of death in the United States, are directly attributable to hypertension. QUICK TAKE The SPRINT Trial Hypertension is highly prevalent in the adult population in the United States, especially among persons older than 60 years of age, and affects approximately 1.
We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. Hypertension is classified as malignant hypertension when there is an increase of intracranial pressure, which can eventually cause health problems like papilledema (Mosby's, , p.
). Since hypertension is undetectable increasing the awareness and 4/4(1). Hypertension, also known as Arterial Hypertension, is persistent elevation of the blood pressure above /90 rutadeltambor.comial, or primary, hypertension is % of cases of hypertension.
In other cases, inessential, or secondary, arterial hypertension is diagnosed.