Visiting Professor, University of SalzburgAustria
History[ edit ] A loosely defined goal of ZPG is to match the replacement fertility ratewhich is the average number of children per woman which would hold the population constant.
This replacement fertility will depend on mortality rates and the sex ratio at birth, and varies from around 2. Unstable rates can lead to drastic changes in population levels.
This analysis is valid for the planet as a whole assuming that interplanetary travel remains at zero or negligible levelsbut not necessarily for a region or country as it ignores migration.
A population that has been growing in the past will have a higher proportion of young people. As it is younger people who have children, there is large time lag between the point at which the fertility rate mean total number of children each woman has during her childbearing years falls to the replacement level the fertility rate which would result in equal birth and death rates for a population at equilibrium and the point at which the population stops rising.
Therefore, equilibrium, with a static population, will not be reached until the first "replacement level" birth cohorts reach old age and die. The related calculations are complex because the population's overall death rate can vary over time, and mortality also varies with age being highest among the old.
This effect has been termed birth dearth. In addition, if a country's fertility is at replacement level, and has been that way for at least several decades to stabilize its age distributionthen that country's population could still experience coincident growth due to continuously increasing life expectancyeven though the population growth is likely to be smaller than it would be from natural population increase.
Zero population growth is often a goal of demographic planners and environmentalists who believe that reducing population growth is essential for the health of the ecosystem.
Preserving cultural traditions and ethnic diversity is a factor for not allowing human populations levels or rates to fall too low. Achieving ZPG is difficult because a country's population growth is often determined by economic factors, incidence of poverty, natural disasters, disease, etc.
However, even if there is zero population growth, there may be changes in demographics of great importance to economic factorssuch as changes in age distribution.
How ZPG can be achieved[ edit ] Number of demographic experts have suggested a few ways to reach zero population growth.
Thornhill and Author Daniel Quinn argue that human population growth is a function of the human food supply  and that human population growth can only be achieved by an expanded food supply to support the growing population. Inthey produced a video entitled " Food Production and Human Population Growth " where they explain the theory and answer audience questions.
Albert Bartlettan emeritus professor of physics at University of Colorado at Boulder in his lifetime, suggested that the population have following choices to be at ZPG: Voluntarily limit births and immigration to achieve zero population growth; Continue on the present path until our population is so large that draconian measures become necessary to stop the growth of population; Do nothing and let nature stop the growth through disease, starvation, war and pestilence.
If humans do not solve the problem, nature will. His argument is as follows: By war, with or without weapons of mass destructionstarvationdiseaserapemurderethnic cleansingconcentration campsand other horrors beyond the imagination, when humanity has exceeded the carrying capacity of the Earth.
By the voluntary action of all of humanity prior to the human population exceeding the carrying capacity of the Earth. If any group or even if a single-family failed to control its population the entire program would fail.
By coercive population control prior to the human population exceeding the carrying capacity of the Earth. China is expected to witness a zero population growth rate by China's population growth has slowed since the beginning of this century. This was mostly the result of China's economic growth and increasing living standards which led to the decline.
However, many demographers also credit China's family planning policywhich was formulated in the early s, encourages late marriages, late childbearing, and the use of contraceptives, and since has limited most urban couples to one child and most rural couples to two children.
According to government projections, the work-age population will then drop to million. It was said, inthat the Chinese government was hoping to see zero population growth in the future  but, in Novembera relaxation of the one-child policy was announced amid unpopularity, reduced labour pool and support for an ageing population.Read McDonaldization free essay and over 88, other research documents.
McDonaldization. Mcdonald's and you McDonaldization of Society In today's' complicated and ever changing society, we often try to achieve a sense /5(1). Sep 18, · McDonaldization, good idea or bad idea. “Ether way it goes we don’t have a choice.” When you here the term McDonaldization you may think of Ray Kroc in the ’s buying his first hamburger stand, if you do I am here to expand your horizons a little further.
McDonaldization This Essay McDonaldization and other 64,+ term papers, college essay examples and free essays are available now on rutadeltambor.com Autor: review • November 21, • Essay • Words (3 Pages) • Views4/4(1).
How many of the activities of spying with their misinformation, dangles, floaters and honeytraps, emphasis on the false, and hiding of the true, in general, have counterparts in markets?
I was led to consider this by a reading of the excellent book The Spy and the rutadeltambor.coms most resonant to me was the warning against seeking confirmation from a third party of something you already believe. McDonaldization is an academic term that coined by George Ritzer to describe a unique sociological phenomenon in his book The McDonaldization of Society ().
McDonaldization means a process that makes cooking group or catering enterprise focus on efficiency, calculability, predictability and control shape organization. The McDonaldization of Society essaysSociety today has primarily become McDonalized in its way of thinking and doing everyday activities.
According to George Ritzer, in his book The Mcdonalization of Society, he believes that McDonalization is "the process by which the principles of the fast.