Additional Information Abstract This paper examines how significant musical moments, occurring within singular contexts, may be performative to the development of community. While community is often viewed within music education as an unequivocal good, I argue that this result may not always be beneficent. In this paper, I look at one unique performative moment through the lens of anti-racism education as the potential for community conceived as multicultural human subjectivity.
The Emergence of Existence as a Philosophical Problem Sartre's existentialism drew its immediate inspiration from the work of the German philosopher, Martin Heidegger.
Though in Heidegger would repudiate the retrospective labelling of his earlier work as existentialism, it is in that work that the relevant concept of existence finds its first systematic philosophical formulation. And while not all existential philosophers were influenced by phenomenology for instance Jaspers and Marcelthe philosophical legacy of existentialism is largely tied to the form it took as an existential version of phenomenology.
The existentialists welcomed Husserl's doctrine of intentionality as a refutation of the Cartesian view according to which consciousness relates immediately only to its own representations, ideas, sensations.
According to Husserl, consciousness is our direct openness to the world, one that is governed categorially normatively rather than causally; that is, intentionality is not a property of the individual mind but the categorial framework in which mind and world become intelligible.
In turning phenomenology toward the question of what it means to be, Heidegger insists that the question be raised concretely: Existential themes take on salience when one sees that the general question of the meaning of being involves first becoming clear about one's own being as an inquirer.
According to Heidegger, the categories bequeathed by the philosophical tradition for understanding a being who can question his or her being are insufficient: One can find anticipations of existential thought in many places for instance, in Socratic irony, Augustine, Pascal, or the late Schellingbut the roots of the problem of existence in its contemporary significance lie in the work of Kierkegaard and Nietzsche.
Subsequent existential thought reflects this difference: A focus on existence thus led, in both, to unique textual strategies quite alien to the philosophy of their time. In Kierkegaard, the singularity of existence comes to light at the moment of conflict between ethics and religious faith.
Suppose it is my sense of doing God's will that makes my life meaningful. How does philosophy conceive this meaning? In doing so I lose my individuality since the law holds for all but my actions become meaningful in the sense of understandable, governed by a norm.
Now a person whose sense of doing God's will is what gives her life meaning will be intelligible just to the extent that her action conforms to the universal dictates of ethics. But what if, as in case of Abraham's sacrifice of his son, the action contradicts what ethics demands?
Kierkegaard[ 3 ] believes both that Abraham's life is supremely meaningful it is not simply a matter of some immediate desire or meaningless tic that overcomes Abraham's ethical consciousness; on the contrary, doing the moral thing is itself in this case his tempting inclination and that philosophy cannot understand it, thus condemning it in the name of ethics.
God's command here cannot be seen as a law that would pertain to all; it addresses Abraham in his singularity. Abraham has no objective reason to think that the command he hears comes from God; indeed, based on the content of the command he has every reason, as Kant pointed out in Religion Within the Limits of Reason Alone, to think that it cannot come from God.
His sole justification is what Kierkegaard calls the passion of faith. Since it is a measure not of knowing but of being, one can see how Kierkegaard answers those who object that his concept of subjectivity as truth is based on an equivocation: The truths that matter to who one is cannot, like Descartes' morale definitif, be something to be attained only when objective science has completed its task.
Responding in part to the cultural situation in nineteenth-century Europe—historical scholarship continuing to erode fundamentalist readings of the Bible, the growing cultural capital of the natural sciences, and Darwinism in particular—and in part driven by his own investigations into the psychology and history of moral concepts, Nietzsche sought to draw the consequences of the death of God, the collapse of any theistic support for morality.
Like his contemporary, Fyodor Dostoevsky, whose character, Ivan, in The Brothers Karamazov, famously argues that if God does not exist then everything is permitted, Nietzsche's overriding concern is to find a way to take the measure of human life in the modern world.
Unlike Dostoevsky, however, Nietzsche sees a complicity between morality and the Christian God that perpetuates a life-denying, and so ultimately nihilistic, stance. Nietzsche was not the first to de-couple morality from its divine sanction; psychological theories of the moral sentiments, developed since the eighteenth century, provided a purely human account of moral normativity.
On the account given in On the Genealogy of Morals, the Judeo-Christian moral order arose as an expression of the ressentiment of the weak against the power exercised over them by the strong.
The normative is nothing but the normal. Yet this is not the end of the story for Nietzsche, any more than it was for Kierkegaard.
In such a situation the individual is forced back upon himself. On the one hand, if he is weakly constituted he may fall victim to despair in the face of nihilism, the recognition that life has no instrinsic meaning.
He has understood that nihilism is the ultimate meaning of the moral point of view, its life-denying essence, and he reconfigures the moral idea of autonomy so as to release the life-affirming potential within it. If such existence is to be thinkable there must be a standard by which success or failure can be measured.
To say that a work of art has style is to invoke a standard for judging it, but one that cannot be specified in the form of a general law of which the work would be a mere instance. Rather, in a curious way, the norm is internal to the work.
For Nietzsche, existence falls under such an imperative of style: As did Kierkegaard, then, Nietzsche uncovers an aspect of my being that can be understood neither in terms of immediate drives and inclinations nor in terms of a universal law of behavior, an aspect that is measured not in terms of an objective inventory of what I am but in terms of my way of being it.
Neither Kierkegaard nor Nietzsche, however, developed this insight in a fully systematic way.
That would be left to their twentieth-century heirs. In contrast to other entities, whose essential properties are fixed by the kind of entities they are, what is essential to a human being—what makes her who she is—is not fixed by her type but by what she makes of herself, who she becomes.
It is in light of this idea that key existential notions such as facticity, transcendence projectalienation, and authenticity must be understood.Learn self+concept perception self with free interactive flashcards. Choose from different sets of self+concept perception self flashcards on Quizlet.
Articulation of identity Concept of articulation suggest that aspect social in life a like individual identities is a unified and eternal unique . Subjectivity is a central philosophical concept, related to consciousness, agency, personhood, reality, and truth, which has been variously defined by sources.
Three common definitions include that subjectivity is the quality or condition of. SUBJECTIVITY & IDENTITY The concepts of subjectivity and identity are closely connected and in everyday language virtually inseparable.
Subjectivity: the condition of being a person and the process by which we become a person. How we are constituted as cultural subjects and how we experience. The concept of religion as social relations has some overlap with a concept of religion as (social) identity. For both, religion serves to bind people together in particular ways.
Refers to the global understanding a person has of themselves. Self Identity is composed of relatively permanent self-assessments, such as personality attributes, knowledge of one’s skills and abilities, one’s occupation and hobbies, and awareness of one’s physical attributes.